Information for Contributors

Contributors are welcome to submit a technical paper for publication in any issue of this journal on a subject of their expertise and experience in research and development in the broad field of agriculture.

Prepare 4 copies of the manuscript on 21.6 cm by 27.9-cm (8 1/2- by 11-inch) bond paper. Number pages consecutively, including tables and captions for figures.

The manuscript should be printed double-space in 12-point type, preferably in Times New Roman font, including text, quotations, table titles, captions, and footnotes. The manuscript should consist of the Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, References Cited, List of Tables and Figures, Tables and Figures (details below).

Margins should be at least 4.0 cm from the left and 2.5 cm from the top, bottom and right-hand sides of each page. Each page must also have consecutive line numbers on the left-hand margin. The customary paragraph indentation is 5 spaces. Submit four (4) complete copies of the manuscript to the Editor-in-Chief, together with a certification from a language editor that the manuscript has been edited. Submit also a disk copy of the manuscript.

Articles must be the results of recently conducted research. They must neither be previously nor simultaneously submitted in any journal nor published elsewhere except in a preliminary form. The article should state when and where the study was conducted. Each article should not be more than 30 pages, including tables and figures. Longer articles may be published at the author’s expense. Articles must contribute significantly to the advancement of knowledge or toward better understanding of scientific concepts in tropical agriculture and related fields.

A 2- to 4-page paper with an abstract and a maximum of 3 tables and/or figures and 10 references can be submitted as a research note to report on new disease or insect infestations, potential of a technology or crop, introduction or propagation of a crop or animal breed, routinary test such as fertilizer, technology, feed, variety, hybrids or cropping schemes. Papers on novel and important findings warranting immediate publication, but which can not be justified as full-length articles, can be published as research notes.

Review papers should be critical analysis and integration of recent advances in an important area of research which can stimulate further research, provide a new approach or new knowledge. Authors of these papers should have published at least 3 articles on the subject in a refereed journal or should be recognized authorities in the field covered by the review.

Articles on germplasm and new cultivars or breeds should have an endorsement from the institution of any of the authors. The articles should have certifications that the authors of the article and the authors whose names have been included in scientific names are the acknowledged discoverers of species and/or the acknowledged developers of breeds, cultivars or hybrids.

Please submit a previously scanned and virus-free compact disk containing the version of the paper together with the original manuscript. Submit a hard copy of the manuscript that exactly matches the disk file. Documents should preferably be in Word 2003 format. Otherwise, specify the computer and the type of software that has been used and keep a back-up copy of the disk.

Page proofs are given to authors after the manuscripts have been camera-ready prepared. The editors take no responsibility for inaccuracy on the part of the author(s). Except for printer and editorial errors, all substantial changes in proofs will be charged to the authors. For electronic submission of articles, please send files that have been checked with an antivirus program to the production editor at If the files are larger than 2 MB, they may be sent on compact disks or the editor-in-chief may be consulted for other efficient means of file transmission.



The journal follows the guidelines of Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors and Publishers (2006), 7th ed., Council of Science Editors and the Rockefeller University Press. For literature citations in the text and for the References Cited, the journal uses the style for the name-year system. For multiple authors cited in the text, the citation used is “(Mazahery et al. 2009)” instead of “(Mazahery and others 2009)”. Refer to separate section on References Cited for additional information.

State both the accepted common name and the chemical name of pesticides when first mentioned in the abstract or text. Similarly, state the Latin binomial or trinomial and authority at the first mention of the organism (plants, animals, and microorganisms) in the abstract or main text. Cultivars should be enclosed by ‘ ’ (single quotes). Verify nomenclature from a reliable source.



Ten offprints of the journal will be supplied free of charge. Offprints in lots of 50 and copies of the issue can be ordered.



Use SI units in accordance with the recommendations of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) specified in the British Standards Institution, London publication Specification for SI Units and Recommendations for the Use of Their Multiples and of Certain Other Units, BS 5555: 1993 ISO 1000:1992. The author may choose to add corresponding non-metric units in parentheses.

Use exponents rather than a slash (/) or dot (.) in reporting units of measure, for example, g d-1, mg kg-1 h-1, instead of g/ day or, h-1. When units of measure are not involved, use words such as eggs per mass, suckers per plant, not eggs mass-1 or suckers/plant.

Spell out the number or reword the sentence so that the numeral does not appear at the start of the sentence. Use decimals instead of fractions in the text, tables and illustra- tions. Ordinal numbers are treated in the same way as cardi- nal numbers, for example, 2nd, 23rd, 157th. Percentages are written as numerals followed by the percent sign (%) with no space between them. To indicate range in values, use an en-dash (for example, 10- 15 kg).


Trade Names And Chemical Names

Use trade names sparingly and only in the Materials and Methods. Include the symbol ® where appropriate. Use the generic or common name in the text with the full chemical name in parentheses at first mention.



Advertisements that appear in the journal do not in any way constitute endorsements of said products or services by The Philippine Agricultural Scientist.



All statistical procedures, including methods of analysis, should be identified. Numbers of replicates and subsamples, trans- formations, and statistical tests should be stated. Tables of analysis of variance should not be reported when using classi- cal designs. Present the results of analyses in the appropriate tables or figures.

The use of Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) to compare means is discouraged. Data not subjected to analysis of vari- ance or other tests of significance must at least present the standard error of the mean or standard deviation.


Sequence of Contents in the Manuscript

TITLE PAGE - The title should be printed in capital letters and must accurately identify and describe the contents of the manuscript. To facilitate processing of papers while protecting anonymity in the peer review, authors should identify themselves only in the title page that should precede the article.
Honorary authors are not allowed. A person who has nothing to do with the analysis of data and writing of the paper and who cannot assume responsibility for the technical content of the paper cannot be considered an author. Include each author's complete mailing address and/or institutional affiliation in the title page. Indicate the author to whom correspondence should be addressed and the author’s e-mail address. Indicate whether the research is the portion of a thesis or dissertation and the sources of fund of the research.

For the running title, include a shortened version of the title of the article, not more than 40 letters in length, on the upper left-hand corner of each page.

ABSTRACT - After the title page, print a 150-200 word informative digest of the objectives, methodology and significant findings of the article. The title should also be printed in capital letters before the Abstract.

Include also a 200-word layman’s language summary of the findings and their significance. This summary will be incorporated in the Article Digests section. It should be understandable to an interested reader here and abroad. New techniques or unfamiliar methods should be explained and, if terms cannot be defined, they should likewise be explained.

KEY WORDS - The key words and phrases following the Abstract should be alphabetically arranged and should reflect the contents of the paper. Give not more than eight key words.

ABBREVIATIONS - For easy reference, an alphabetically arranged sequence of abbreviations and acronyms and their meanings are printed after the Key Words. Avoid abbreviations in the title and abstract, although they may be used in graphs, tables, figures and legends. Acronyms are to be spelled out first and then enclosed in parenthesis at first mention. Avoid using acronyms and abbreviations as the first word of a sentence or a heading. Rewrite the sentence or spell out the term. Use abbreviations only for terms used at least three times.

TEXT - The text, which comes after the Abbreviations, is presented in the sequence listed as follows: INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION, ACKNOWLEDGMENT and REFERENCES CITED.

Separate Results, Discussion and Conclusion sections can be used when the article warrants it.

Abbreviations and Acronyms that do not need to be spelled out:

  • ANOVA - analysis of variance
  • cv. - cultivar
  • diam. - diameter
  • DMRT - Duncan's Multiple Range Test
  • Fig. - Figure
  • HSD - honest significant difference
  • LSD - least significant difference
  • no. - number
  • r - correlation coefficient of linear determination
  • r2 - correlation coefficient of simple determination
  • R2 - correlation coefficient of multiple determination
  • SD - standard deviation
  • SE - standard error of sample mean
  • vs. - versus
  • wt. - weight
  • oC - temperature (degrees Celsius)


References Cited

It is the author's responsibility to check that all references in the text appear at the end of the paper and vice versa, and that the names and dates are consistent.

Mimeographed publications and terminal and annual reports are not acceptable as reference citations. Authors can cite published data and manuscripts as unpublished data or personal communication but these will not be included in the References Cited.

Cite only published articles. References cited in the text use the style of the name-year system. They are listed alphabetically at the end of the paper. Examples of entries in the Refer ences Cited section are as follows:

Journal Articles
MATTHEWS RE. 1982. Classification and nomenclature of viruses. Intervirology 17:1-199.
WANG H, STADEN JV. 2001. Establishment of in vitro cultures of tree peonies. South Afric J Bot 57:358-361.

HAFEZ ES. 1993. Reproduction in Farm Animals. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lea and Febiger. 733 p.

Portion of Book
SCHUBERT S. 1995. Proton release by roots. In: Singh BB, Mengel K, editors. Physiology and Biochemistry of Plants. New Delhi: Panama Publishing Corp. p. 97-119.

Theses and Dissertations
ILAGAN YA. 1996. Analysis of Genetic Variation in Strains of Pseudomonas solanacearum E.F. Smith. [PhD dissertation]. College, Laguna, Philippines: University of the Philippines Los Baños. 212 p. (Available at the UPLB Library)

Paper from a Proceedings
PANTASTICO EB, MENDOZA DB. 1988. Climatic constraints to rice production in the Philippines. In: Cardenas A, editor. Climate and Rice Production. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Agrometeorology of the Rice Crop at the 27th meeting of the World Meteorological Organization; 1987 April 8-14; Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute. p. 107-119.

Organization as Author
[AOAC] Association of Official Agricultural Chemists. 1975. Official Methods of Analysis, 12th ed. Washington, DC: Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, Inc. 1042 p.

Electronic References
To direct the reader to the entire website, not to a specific document in the site, it is enough to give the address of the website:

Citation for a web document follows a format similar to that for prints with additional information:
Retrieved January 11, 2001 (date of retrieval) from the World
Wide Web:

If no publication date is available for a document, state n.d. (stands for "no date") in its place.

For information retrieved from CD-ROM databases, use the same format as that of a print:
Retrieved from [Source] database (name of database),
CD-ROM (release date), (item no. - if applicable)

Example: Retrieved from Seed Abstracts (AGRICOLA),
CD-ROM (5 May 1999)

For database accessed through the Web, the retrieval statement is:
Retrieved (month, day, year), from (source) database
(name of database), (item no. - if applicable), or the World
Wide Web:

Example: Retrieved December 1999 from Biological
Abstracts (AGRIS)


Tables, Figures and Illustrations

Submit tables, figures and illustrations in separate files (16 cm or 8 cm wide).

Present tables (preferably in Excel format) to fit the working area for the text of the journal, 16 cm x 22.5 cm. Tables should conform to the journal's page size (16 or 8 cm wide) and style. Use only up to 3 footnotes in the tables. As much as possible, place all necessary information in the heading. Introduce a table in the text before presenting it. Avoid using abbreviations in the tables. If they must be used in the tables, abbreviations should be spelled out in the legends or footnotes. Tables should be able to stand alone, i. e., the reader need not refer to the main body of the text to understand the contents of a table.

Photographs, Figures and illustrations should conform to the page size and style of the journal. Figures and Illustrations should be prepared as camera-ready copy. They should measure exactly 16 cm (1890 pixels) or 8 cm (945 pixels) wide. The height, however, can be varied to the maximum size of 22.5 cm, including label. Figures and Illustrations with text should have Arial as the font style and must be at least 8 points or bigger. Submitted graphs must have been generated preferably using the Excel program for uniformity. They must be given as JPEG picture files of at least 300 pixels per inch (PPI) in the disk submitted. Photographs, Figures and illustrations that do not meet this resolution requirement can have a poor printout.

Avoid extremely small type (use Arial, 8 points or bigger), fine-grained stippling or faint shading, as there will be loss of contrast and detail in printing.

Captions and legends should be printed at the bottom of each illustration. Microscopic illustrations should include magnification, preferably a bar denoting scale of measure, for example, bar = 10 mm. Photocopies of photographs and figure drawings will not be accepted.

Authors are requested to submit extra color photographs with appropriate captions that can be used as cover photographs.


Author and Subject Indexes

The fourth quarter issue of each volume of the journal publishes Author and Subject Indexes and the list of reviewers for the current year.